Where are “neural receptors” nuclei placed?
Which type of sensory neurons can be found in DRG?
Aα-type: myelinated, large diameter cell bodies, fast conduction (proprioceptive neurons)
Aβ-type: myelinated, large diameter cell bodies, fast conduction (low-threshold mechanoreceptors that mediate touch)
Only Aδ-type (lightly myelinated, medium sized, intermediate conduction speed (nociceptive neurons) and C-type (unmyelinated, small diameter, slowest conduction, thermoreceptors, low-threshold mechanoreceptors, nociceptors)
All of them
The basic functional element of the neuromuscular system is a motor unit, which consists of all of the following except:
What “second pain” means?
Which part of the spinothalamic tract is involved in the transmission of pain?
Which of the following structures lacks innervation and therefore cannot transmit pain?
SF-12: What does it means?
MPQ-SF2: What does it means?
Sensory Mapping: What does it means?
Mechanical Allodynia: define it
Thermal Hyperalgesia: define it
CRPS I: What does it means?
SSEP: What does it means?
FBSS: What does it means?
Secondary hyperalgesia: define it
Anaesthesia dolorosa: define it
Which of these four pain conditions is NOT nociceptive pain?
Which of these four pain conditions is NOT nociplastic pain?
Assuming correct timing of performing the complete neurodiagnostic study, which of the following conditions would most likely result in a normal EMG/NCS test?
Which of the following does the nerve conduction routine tests study fail to assess or give information about?
Which muscles are innervated, at least mainly, by the L5 nerve root?
A “sharp,” “burning,” “electric-like,” or “skin-sensitive” pain at the end of a residual limb is called:
6-monoacetylmorphine is a unique metabolite of which substance?
What is the pain wind-up phenomenon?
Which is the oral analogue of lidocaine used in the treatment of neuropathic pain?
Which of the following statements is not true regarding central poststroke pain (CPSP)?
Which of the following is not true regarding fibromyalgia?
To which family opioid receptors belong?
Which of the following is not recommended as a first-line medication for low back pain?
Which are the ion channels blocked by Pregabalin (Lyrica) and gabapentin (Neurontin) on neurons and are preferred fi rst-line medications for diabetic neuropathy?
Through which channels anticonvulsants carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine mainly works on pain (especially migrane)?
The initial gate control theory by Melzack and Wall proposed that stimulation of ……................................. fibers modulates the dorsal horn “gate” and therefore reduces the nociceptive input from the periphery.
Patients with chronic pain can display:
What is the goal of chronic pain management?
The classic staging of the emotional and psychological responses that people often experience when faced with a life-changing illness was defined as "Stages of Grief" and was described in 1969 by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. What is the wright order of responses, according to that model?
Depression, Acceptance, Bargaining, Denial, Anger
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
Acceptance, Depression, Denial, Anger, Bargaining
Bargaining, Anger, Denial, Acceptance, Depression
A young golf player feels pain and paresthesias in the first three fingers of the hand and the skin over the thenar eminence. The pain does not awaken the patient at night. Pain can be provoked by resisted elbow flexion and pronation, as well as by resisted finger flexion. You make the diagnosis of:
A patient presents with numbness and pain in a well-circumscribed distribution on the anterolateral thigh. These symptoms are exacerbated by walking or extending of the hip. No weakness of the lower limb is noted. You make the diagnosis of:
In a patient with bothersome phantom limb sensation, phantom limb pain, and residual limb pain. Which is the first line of treatment:
A 20-year-old man presents to you for initial evaluation of low back pain and morning stiffness. He denies trauma to the area. On physical examination, there is decreased spinal mobility and decreased chest expansion. You make a diagnosis of:
Which is a mechanism of action of the oxygen-ozone therapy?
Which of the following diseases is not considered as an absolute contraindication for oxygen-ozone therapy?
What factors influence development of chronic pain?